Read the Covenants

Here are the texts of five covenants (one of which appears in two versions) of the Prophet Muhammad with various Christian communities of his time. They demonstrate that strategic intelligence and political acumen need not always be divorced, as they so often are in our world, from moral rectitude, spiritual wisdom, and—from the standpoint of the believer at least—the manifest will of God:

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Monks of Mount Sinai

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World (1630)

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World (1538)

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of Persia

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of Najran

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Assyrian Christians

Sign the Covenants Initiative

In response to the clash of barbarisms that is presently laying the world in ruins, interested Muslims have elected to take the rare opportunity presented by the publication of The Covenants of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World to launch “The Covenants Initiative,” which asks all Muslims, Sunni, Shi’ite, and Sufi, from all schools of jurisprudence and spiritual paths, including scholars and non-scholars, to append their names to the following declaration: Covenants Initiative We will forward this declaration and the endorsements we receive, along with copies of The Covenants of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World, to Christian leaders in the Middle East, Africa, and elsewhere in the world, many of whose communities are now under serious attack by Muslim “extremists.” In view of the bombings and brutal massacres committed in the name of Islam in the past, as well as others that—God forbid!—may take place in the future, it is safe to say that if there was ever a time when Muslims need to do something to break the growing identification of Islamicist terrorism with all Islam in the minds of the non-Muslim populations of the western nations, it is now. Islam has been on the losing end of virtually every interaction with the western world during the past two centuries, and is presently under relentless attack both from without and from within. Why, then, should Muslims make a point of drawing public attention to the sufferings of contemporary Christians? One reason is that compassion extended to fellow sufferers by those who themselves are in great need of compassion is a powerful and chivalrous act. Those who come with demands drive people away from them; those who come with offers of help draw them closer. It is time for Muslims to move beyond simply protesting, once again, “but we’re not all terrorists!”—a phrase which, for all its obvious sincerity, has rather a self-serving ring to it for many non-Muslims, whether it is believed or disbelieved—and take a vigorous, proactive, and public stance in support of peaceful Christians presently being attacked by some seriously misguided “Muslims,” doing so in the name of the Prophet Muhammad himself, peace and blessings be upon him, based on newly-discovered documents that record his very words. This project, insha’Allah, will have three good effects, which we will list in ascending order of importance: 1) Like nothing else we can imagine, it will present Muslims in a positive light to those who are still capable of human feeling; 2) It might save a few lives; and 3) It is a worthy thing to do in the sight of Allah, according to His clear Command as transmitted by His Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. Peace is not made by generating peaceful feelings and/or attending exclusively peaceful gatherings. It is made by facing and enduring conflict, while never departing from the remembrance of God. It is a rare occurrence when strategic advantage, moral rectitude, and Divine Command apparently converge so as to point out a particular course of action; we believe that the Covenants Initiative represents just such a convergence. If you are a Muslim, and feel moved by your own conscience, after reading The Covenants of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World—remembering, always, that no-one can decide for you or compel you in any way, seeing that there is to be no compulsion in religion—to add your name to this Initiative.

LIST OF SIGNATORIES

Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf, Cordoba Initiative / Kathryn Qahira Santana / Marina (Nouria) Bouteillier, Los Angeles Beloved Sufis / Yousef Casewit, Yale University / Farah Kimball, International Peace Project / Zachary Markwith, Graduate Theological Union /Luqman Ali / Charles Daines / Adam Deen, The Deen Institute / Professor Alan Godlas, University of Georgia / Shaikh Kabir Helminski, The Threshold Society / Dr. Jeremy Henzell-Thomas, The Book Foundation / Irving Karchmar / Qaisra Ehsan Khan / Amnah Malik / Sadat Malik / Dr. John Parks, M.D. / Saqib Safdar, Tarbeyah:  An Exploration of Spirituality, Parenting and Education / Yusuf A.H. Salaam, Ohio Kentucky Indiana World Trade Group ETC / Dr. Reza Shah-Kazemi, Institute of Ismaili Studies / Kamal Southall / Alicia Carrara / Hector Manzolillo / Matthew Johnson / Dr. Aida Shahlar Gasimova, Baku State University / Dr. Omid Safi, University of Delaware / Dr. Hisham M. Ramadan, Kwantlen Polytechnic University / Dr. Bridget Blomfield, University of Nebraska / Dr. Said Mentak, University Mohamed I / Dr. Mohamed Elkouche, Mohamed I University / Dr. Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani, University of Qom / Dr. Amar Sellam, Mohamed I University  / Charles Upton, Covenants Initiative / Rachida Bejja, Quality Counseling & Psychological Services / Dr. John Andrew Morrow, The Covenants Initiative / Saimma Dyer / Daniel Dyer / Nigel Jackson, Artist and Illustrator / Dr. Cyrus Ali Zargar, Augustana College / Dr. Mahdi Tourage, University of  Western Ontario, King’s College / Priscilla Machado (BSW) / Faysal Burhan, Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies / Safeer Siddiqui, Ahmadiyya Moslim Djama’at / Amal Hayati / Captain Wisam Elmajed, Royal Jordanian / Mohammad Z. Malik / Ali Malik / Abdul Fattah / Yasser Chaudhary, LAFZ Magazine / Muhammad Islam Singh / Arshad Sharif, Muslim Council of Southampton / Mahmud Abdullah Abdat / Muhammad Fadillah Bin Rosli / James Parker / Baha’uddin Peter Hughes / Malak Shumburo / Zahit Krajna / Ibrahim Hanif / Sara Ozer / Dr. Hesham A. Hassaballa / Sufi John Ishvaradas Abdallah, World Without Borders Interfaith Sufi Ashram / Khadija Fitzwilli Hall / Dr. Walid Radwan / Leo Abu Aziz Schmitt / Khaldoun Bitar / Enise Anas / Ahmed Saleem / Rafif Al-Ruhaimi / Guy St-Hilaire / Arnold Yasin Mol, Deen Research Center (DRC) & Leiden University / Dr. Kevin Barrett, Muslim-Jewish-Christian Alliance / Mohamad Reza / Alim Ali, Muslim Perspectives Radio Program / Muhammad Arshad, FSU / Abbas Shah / Hussain Khan / Nebil Nuradin, Muslim Women Network / Fyza Durrani / Muhammad Abbass / Asif Merchant, Foundation for Pluralism / Mike Mohamed Ghouse, University of Delaware, Foundation for Pluralism / Dr. Muqtedar Khan, University of Delaware / Muhammed Haron, University of Botswana /Wazir Bax, Guyana Islamic Trust / Bibi Ruqaiyah Baksh, GIT Youths / Fazeel Mohamed Ferouz, President, Central Islamic Organization of Guyana / Muhammad Yunus / Tariq Najee-ullah / Abdul-Rehman Malik / Atiya Ahsan / Rifat Belal / Osman Saffah, Author and Journalist / Osman Qureshi, Author and Journalist / Fouad Ahsayni / Aasim Soomro / Cheryfa MacAulay Jamal / Abeer Ameer / Andrzej Ahmed Saramowicz, Rumi Foundation of Poland / Latifa Chentouf / Jayde Russell, London Central Mosque and ICC / Humera Khan / Fatimah Mohammed-Ashrif / Ismaeel Siddique / Noor-Malika Chishti / Dr. Munawar A. Anees, President, Rawi University / Professor Emeritus Abdallah Schleifer, American University in Cairo / Shereen Williams / Dr. Bouchra Belgaid / Dr. Maged Agour / M. Shiraz Kaleel / Zahoor Ahmad / Brent (Bashier) Slabbert / Shakireh Ispahani / Sam Amico, Niche of Light / Serhat Cakmakoglu / Mahmoud Mostafa / Tasneen Kinaci / Tevfirk Aydoner, Canadian Sufi Cultural Centre / Daniel Abdal-Hayy Moore, The Ecstatic Exchange / Dr. Roger Abdul-Wahhab Boase / Ghazala Akbar / Khalid Masud / Nafiseh Ispahani / Qasim Kazmi / Saleh Jaleel / Uzma Taj / Imam Rashid Patch / Salim Warda, Wardrobe Pictures / Sabah Jaka / Alexander Valenzuela / Ryan Brizendine, Yale University / Oliver S. Muhammad, As Salaam Islamic Center of Raleigh, North Carolina, USA / Siema Taj / Vehap Kola / Natalia Andujar, Junta Islamica / Mohamad Saeb Martini / Mohammed Nazerul Khairy Bin Dzulkefli, Citizen, Republic of Singapore / Shabbir Agha Abbas, Muslims for Peace, Inc. / Rashed Y. Al-Foudary / Feroz Hamd / Ishrat Ahmad / Adnan Momin / Amjad Saleem / Tamir Mutakabbir / Imad Jafar / Teresa Gill / Toheed Ahmad / Catherine Shakdam / Ahmed Akoob / Sonja Lang / Noor-Malika Chishti / Ilyas al-Kashani, Hakim Wellness / Shahid Aziz / Nuray Cetin / Hira Khan / Zeeshan Sheikh / Shaykh Muhammad ‘Umar al-Qadri, Al-Mustafa Islamic Cultural Centre, Dublin, Ireland / Nasim Ahmad / Dr. Azlan Khalili Shamsuddin, Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia / Malik / Ali Panju, Ridhayatullah Theatre / Mashadi, Islam Nusantara Initiative / Tharik Hussain / M. Smit / Hamza Hasnain / Ghulam Zailai, Ridhayatullah Theatre / Munis Umatia, Ridhayatullah Theatre / Ana Moreira / Amy Rose Ali / Edward Kendall / Fabrice and Nurriddeenah Boukia / Mansour Moufid / Giovanna-Wakila Ilham Hope / Elizabeth / Muhammad Suhail / Ryan Ford / Dr. Mohamad Gemeaha / Mohammad N. Mian, Islamic Society of Greater Salt Lake / Sheila Musaji / W. George Krasnow, Russia & America Good Will Associates / Mohammed Rafiq Lodhi, The Lodhia Center / Jalal / David Narbutas / Syed Rizwan Rizvan, Resident ‘Alim at Masjid-e-Ali / Sajida Bandali, Taqwa Media / Dr. Farooq Bandali, Taqwa Media / Abeda Mueed / Mohammad Zaki Khizer Khan / Mourad / Nibras Muhsin / Arlandi / Mark and Catherine Dreyer / Nimrah Kaaling Ali / Fitzgerald Mistral / Dr. Sayyid M. Syeed, Director for the Office for Interfaith & Community Alliances at the Islamic Society of North America /Ahlam Zaki / Muhajir Romero / Salim Warda / Slimani el-Houssine / Jasmine Ansari / Ahmed El-Wakil / Mohammad Fheili / Sayyid Slimani / Teresa Marie Gill / Abdullah Thomas / Yasmine Deghedi / Усман сын Султана / Hassan Seyyed / Sandra Hahn / Feisal Bin Abdul Rahman / Sameer Hasan / Arjen Buitelaar / Chaplain Asad S. Mannan / Stephen Olof Wikblom / Ibrahim Rabiu Hassan / Kareem M. Irfan, Esq., Past President: Council of Religious Leaders of Metro Chicago; Past Chair: Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago / Laurent Jasaron / Edward Cockrel / James Hiddle / Tariq Cheema, World Congress of Muslim Philanthropists / Mazen Helwani / Adamu Sambo / Lawrence DesForges / Tammar Soma / Marianne Hogan Nsour, Tayba Foundation / Safi Kaskas, Strategic Edge / Sahada Alolo, Northern Girl Initiative / Dr. Mohamed Hosny, Sorbonne University / Dr. S.M. Ghazanfar, Professor Emeritus, University of Idaho / Professor Halim Rane, Griffith University / Rashid De Ridder / Divaan e Ishq / Abdullah Faiz Zain / Shah Hussain / Sakina Begum / Suzanne Giraud / Ait Serhane / Shaykh Hamza Yusuf, Co-Founder of Zaytuna / Dr. Arief Ahmed, Leeds Dawah Network / Barri Yudha Prawira / Warda Umm Ibtihej / Taha Poonawala…

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Monks of Mount Sinai

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Monks of Mount Sinai 

[By the Prophet Muhammad]

[Translated by John Andrew Morrow in 2013]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.

(A copy of the manuscript of the covenant [‘ahd] written by Muhammad, the son of ‘Abd Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to all the Christians.)

This covenant [kitabun] was written by Muhammad, the son of ‘Abd Allah, the proclaimer and warner [bashiran wa nadhiran], trusted to protect Allah’s creations [wadi‘at Allah fi khalqihi], in order that people may raise no claim [hujjah] against Allah after [the advent of] His Messengers [rusul] for Allah is Almighty, Wise.

He has written it for the members of his religion [ahl al-millatihi] and to all those who profess the Christian religion in East and West, near or far, Arabs or non-Arabs [‘ajami], known or unknown, as a covenant of protection.

If anyone breaks the covenant [‘ahd] herein proclaimed, or contravenes or transgresses its commands, he has broken the Covenant of Allah, breaks his bond, makes a mockery of his religion, deserves the curse, whether he is a sultan or another among the believing Muslims.

If a monk or pilgrim seeks protection, in mountain or valley, in a cave or in tilled fields, in the plain, in the desert, or in a church, I am behind them, defending them from every enemy; I, my helpers [awani], all the members of my religion [ahl al-millati], and all my followers [atbai], for they [the monks and the pilgrims] are my protégés and my subjects [ahl al-dhimmati].

I protect them from interference with their supplies and from the payment of taxes save what they willingly renounce. There shall be no compulsion or constraint against them in any of these matters.

A bishop shall not be removed from his bishopric, nor a monk from his monastery, nor a hermit from his tower [sawma‘], nor shall a pilgrim be hindered from his pilgrimage. Moreover, no building from among their churches [bayt min buyut kanaisihim] shall be destroyed, nor shall the money [mal] from their churches be used for the building of mosques or houses for the Muslims. Whoever does such a thing violates Allah’s covenant [ahd Allah] and dissents from the Messenger of Allah.

Neither poll-tax [jizyah] nor fees [gharamah] shall be laid on monks [ruhban], bishops [asaqifah], or worshippers for I protect them, wherever they may be, on land or sea, in East and West, in North and South. They are under my protection, within my covenant [mithaqi], and under my security [amani], against all harm [makruh].

Those who also isolate themselves in the mountains or in sacred sites shall be free from the poll-tax [jizyah], land tribute [kharaj] and from tithe [‘ushr] or duty on whatever they grow for their own use, and they shall be assisted in raising a crop by a free allowance of one qadah [unit of dry measure] in every ardabb [= 6 waiba = 24 rub‘a] for their personal use.

They shall be not obliged to serve in war, or to pay the poll-tax [jizyah]; even those for whom an obligation to pay land tribute [kharaj] exists, or who possess resources in land or from commercial activity, shall not have to pay more than twelve dirhams a head per year.

On no one shall an unjust tax be imposed, and with the People of the Book there is to be no strife, unless it be over what is for the good [5:48]. We wish to take them under the wing of our mercy, and the penalty of vexation shall be kept at a distance from them, wherever they are and wherever they may settle.

If a Christian woman enters a Muslim household, she shall be received with kindness, and she shall be given opportunity to pray in her church; there shall be no dispute between her and a man who loves her religion. Whoever contravenes the covenant of Allah [‘ahd Allah] and acts to the contrary is a rebel against his covenant [mithaqahu] and his Messenger.

These people shall be assisted in the maintenance of their religious buildings and their dwellings [mawadi‘]; thus they will be aided in their faith and kept true to their allegiance.

None of them shall be compelled to bear arms, but the Muslims shall defend them; and they shall never contravene this promise of protection until the hour comes and the world ends.

As witness to this covenant, which was written by Muhammad, son of ‘Abdullah, the Messenger of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to all the Christians.

As sureties for the fulfillment of all that is prescribed herein, the following persons set theirs hands.

The names of the witnesses:

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

Abu al-Darda’

Abi Hurayrah

‘Abd Allah ibn Ma‘sud

‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib

Harith ibn Thabit

‘Abd al-‘Azim ibn Hasan

Fudayl ibn ‘Abbas

al-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwam

Talhah ibn ‘Abd Allah

Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh

Sa‘d ibn ‘Ubadah

Thabit ibn Nafis

Zayd ibn Thabit

Bu Hanifah ibn ‘Ubayyah

Hashim ibn ‘Ubayyah

Mu‘azzam ibn Qurashi

‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As

‘Amir ibn Yasin

This covenant [ahd] was written in his own hand by ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib in the Mosque of the Prophet, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, on the third of Muharram in the second year of the Prophet’s Hegira.

A copy of this covenant has been deposited in the treasury [khizanah] of the Sultan. It was signed with the seal of the Prophet, peace be upon him. It was written on a piece of leather from Ta’if.

Blessed be he who abides by its contents. Blessed be he for he belongs to those who can expect the forgiveness of Allah.

This copy, which is copied from the original, is sealed with the signature of the noble Sultan [sharif al-Sultani]. This reproduction was copied from the copy that was copied from the copy written in the handwriting of the Leader of the Believers, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah bless his countenance.

With the order of the noble Sultan [sharif al-Sultani], that is still in effect, with the help of Allah, which was given to a community of monks who inhabit the Mountain of Tur-Sina’i because the copy, which was copied from the copy written by the Leader of the Believers, was lost, in order that his document be a support of the Sultan’s royal decrees which are evidenced by the records in the hands of the community in question.

This is a reproduction of the original [‘asl] without adapation [fadl wa wasl].

Written by the weakest of slaves,

al-Bari Nuh ibn Ahmad al-Ansari

The judge from Egypt, the Safeguarded [mahrusah], has pardoned them.

Sealed with the round seal and certified.

Nuh Ahmad ibn al-Ansari

[signature]

Modeled on a seal whose original [mahar] is signed with this signature.

Written by the poor [faqir], Muhammad al-Qadi, from Ancient Egypt, may he be forgiven!

 

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World (I)

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World (I)

(First published by Gabriel Sionita in 1630 CE)

[By the Prophet Muhammad]

[Translated by John Andrew Morrow]

[In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.]

It was written by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, the proclaimer and warner [bashiran wa nadhiran], to all the people [al-nas kaffah], [Muhammad], who is entitled to the protection of Allah [wadi‘at Allah] in truth, and as a proof [hujjah] of Allah for the Christian religion [din al-nasraniyyah] in the eastern land and its west, its Arabs and non-Arabs [fasihiha wa‘ajamiha], near or far, known or unknown.

This document [kitaban], which has been prepared for them, constitutes an authoritative covenant [ahdan mariyyan], a well-known certificate [sijlan manshuran], and a testament [wasiyyah] from him which must be respected and which will protect them.

Whoever holds to Islam, abides by it, and whoever breaks the covenant contained in this testament, and transgresses [khalafahu] it among the non-Muslims, and contradicts what I commanded in it, he has violated the Covenant of Allah [ahd Allah], denies the Oath of Allah [mithaq Allah] and has disdained His Protection [dhimmah] whether he is a Sultan or anyone else among the believers and the Muslims.

I commit myself to grant alliances [uhud] and pledges [mawathiq] to those who requested them from me and from all of my families [ahliyy] from among the Muslims to give them the covenant of Allah [ahd Allah] and His Pledge [mithaq] and I place them under the safeguard of His Prophets, His Messengers, His Elect, His Saints, from the Muslims and the Believers, among the first of them and the last of them. And my protection [dhimmati] and my pact [mithaq] the most solid covenant that Allah has given a prophet sent or an angel [or sovereign] drawn near, [namely], the right to demand obedience, to give obligations [farida], and respect of Allah’s Covenant [ahad Allah].

That I protect their judges in my fortified borderlines [fi thughuri] with my horses and my men, my helpers, and my followers, from among the Believers, from every region among the regions of the enemy, whether they be far away or close by, whether they be at peace or at war, I safeguard them. I grant security to their churches, their places of pilgrimage [siyahah] wherever they are and wherever they may be found, be they in the mountains or the valleys, in the caves or the inhabited regions, in the plains or the desert, or in buildings; and that I protect their religion and their property wherever they are and wherever they may be found in land or at sea, in the East or West, the same way that I protect myself, my successors [khatimi], and the People of my Community [ahl al-millati] among the Believers and the Muslims.

I place them under my protection from any damage or harm [makruh]; to exempt them from any requisitions or any onerous obligations. I am behind them, protecting them myself, by means of my followers, my helpers, and the members of my religious community [ahl al-millati].

Having authority over them, I must govern them, protecting them from all damage and ensuring that no harm happens to them that does not happen to me and my Companions who, along with me, protect this ascribed authority.

I block from them the harm in the supplies which obliges the people of the pact [ahl al-ahd] from loan [‘aria] and land tribute [kharaj] except what they themselves consent to give. They should not be compelled in this matter.

It is not permitted to remove a bishop from his bishopric or a Christian from his Christianity, a monk from his monastic life or a pilgrim from his pilgrimage or a hermit monk from his tower. Nor is it permitted to destroy any part of their churches, to take parts of their buildings to construct mosques or the homes of Muslims. Whoever does such a thing will have violated the pact of Allah, disobeyed his Messenger, and betrayed the Divine Alliance.

It is not permitted to impose a capitation [jizyah] or any kind of tax on monks or bishops only that which they are prepared to give willingly.

The capitation [jizyah] upon owners of large businesses, and divers, and those who exploit mines for precious stones, gold and silver, and those who are wealthy, and powerful, among those who have professed Christianity, may not surpass more than twelve dirhams per year, so long as they are inhabitants of these countries or residents, and not travelers.

The traveler, or the resident whose place [of residence] is unknown, is not obliged to pay the land tribute [kharaj] or the poll-tax [jizyah] unless he has inherited land over which the ruler [sultan] has a monetary right. He must pay the money [mall] as others without, however, the charges unjustly exceeding the measure of their means [or strength].

As for the labor force which the owners spend upon to cultivate these lands, to render them fertile, and to harvest them, they are not to be taxed excessively. Let them pay in the same fashion that was imposed on other similar tributaries.

The free non-Muslims enjoying Muslim protection [ahl al-dhimmah] will not be obliged to go to war with the Muslims in order to combat their enemies, to attack them, and to seize them. Indeed, such free non-Muslims [ahl al-dhimmah] will not engage in war along with the Muslims. It is precisely to discharge them of this obligation that this pact has been granted to them as well as to assure them the help and protection on the part of the Muslims. They will not be obliged to go out with the Muslims to meet their enemies or be forced to give their horses, their arms, unless they contribute to the cause freely. Whoever does so will be recognized for his action.

No Christian will be made Muslim by force: And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better [29:46]. They must be covered by the wing of mercy. Repel every harm that could reach them wherever they may find themselves and in any country in which they are.

If a Christian were to commit a crime or an offense, Muslims must provide him with help, defense, and protection. They should pardon his offense and encourage his victim to reconcile with him, urging him to pardon him or to receive compensation in return.

The Muslims must not abandon the Christians and leave them without help and assistance since I have made this pact with them on behalf of Allah to ensure that whatever good befell Muslims it would befall them as well and that whatever harm befell Muslims would befall them as well. In virtue of this pact, they have obtained inviolable rights to enjoy our protection, to be protected from any infringement of their rights, so that they will be bound to the Muslims both in good and bad fortune.

Christians must not be subject to suffer, by abuse, on the subject of marriages which they do not desire. Muslims should not take Christian girls in marriage against the will of their parents, nor should they oppress their families in the event that they refused their offers of engagement and marriage. Such marriages should not take place without their desire and agreement and without their approval and consent.

If a Muslim takes a Christian woman as a wife, he must respect her Christian beliefs. He will give her freedom to listen to her [clerical] superiors as she desires, to follow the path of her own religion, and he will not force her to leave it. Whoever, despite this order, forces his wife to act contrary to her religion in any aspect whatsoever he will have broken the alliance of Allah and will enter into open rebellion against the pact of His Messenger, and Allah will count him among the impostors.

If the Christians seek the help and assistance of the Muslims in order to repair their churches and their convents or to arrange matters pertaining to their affairs and religion, they, [the Muslims], must help and support them. However, they must not do so with the aim of receiving any reward. On the contrary, they should aim to restore that religion, out of faithfulness to the pact of the Messenger of Allah, by pure donation, and as a meritorious act before Allah and His Messenger.

In matters of war between them and their enemies, the Muslims will not employ any Christian as a messenger, scout, guide or spy or for any other duty of war. Whoever obliges one of them to do such a thing is an oppressor [zalim], a rebel against the Messenger of Allah, and has differed over his testament [wasiyyah].

These are the conditions that Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, has placed upon the Christian community [ahl al-millah al-nasraniyyah], with regard to their religion and their community [dhimmah]. They must hold fast to this covenant [ahd] and respect what they have agreed upon.

Among other things, none of them may act as a scout, spy, either overtly or covertly, on behalf of an enemy of war, against a Muslim. None of them will shelter the enemies of the Muslims in their homes from which they could await the moment to launch an attack. May these enemies [of the Muslims] never be allowed to halt in their regions, be it in their villages, their oratories or in any other place belonging to their co-religionists. They must not provide any support to war enemies of the Muslims by furnishing them with weapons, horses, men, or anything else, including greeting them. They must host for three days and three nights any Muslims who halt among them, with their animals. They must offer them, wherever they are found, and wherever they are going, the same food with which they live themselves without, however, being obliged to endure other annoying or onerous burdens.

If a Muslim needs to hide in one of their homes or oratories, they must grant him hospitality, give him help, and provide him with their food during the entire time he will be among them, making every effort to keep him concealed and to prevent the enemy from finding him, while providing for all of his needs.

Whoever contravenes or alters the ordinances of this edict will be cast out of the alliance between Allah and His Messenger.

May everyone abide by the treaties and alliances which have been contracted with the kings, the monks [ruhban], and the Christians [nasara] from the People of the Book, and which I have contracted myself, and every other commitment that each prophet has made with his nation, to assure them safeguard and faithful protection, and to serve them as a guarantee.

This must not be violated or altered until the hour [of the Resurrection] and the end of the world [dunya].

This document [kitaban], which was written by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, for the Christians who had written to him and requested from him this covenant, was witnessed by:

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

Mu‘awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan

Abu al-Darda

Abu Dharr

Abu Hurayrah

‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud

‘Abd Allah ibn al-‘Abbas

Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib

Fadl

Zayd ibn Thabit

‘Abd Allah ibn Zayd

Harfus ibn Zayd

al-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwam

Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh

Thabit ibn Qays

Usamah ibn Zayd

‘Uthman ibn Mat‘un

‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr al-‘As

Abu Rabi‘ah

Hassan ibn Thabit

Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib

Ibn al-‘Abbas

Talhah ibn ‘Abd Allah

Sa‘d ibn ‘Ubadah

Zayd ibn Arqam

Sahl ibn Bayda’

Da’ud ibn Jubayr

Abu al-‘Aliyyah

Abu Ahrifah

Ibn ‘Usayr

Hashim ibn ‘Asiyyah

Zayd ibn Arqam

‘Umar ibn Yamin

Ka‘b ibn Malik

Ka‘b ibn Ka‘b

May Allah be pleased with all of them!

Written [down] by Mu‘awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan, and dictated by the Messenger of Allah on the second day of the month of Rabi‘ah Ashar during the fourth year of the Hegira in Medina.

Allah suffices as a Witness for what is contained in this document [kitaban].

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!

 

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World (II)

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World (II)

(Rediscovered by Dr. Morrow and first published in 2013 from a manuscript which dates to 1538 CE)

[By the Prophet Muhammad]

[Translated by John Andrew Morrow in 2013]

In the Name of Allah, the Creator [al-Khaliq], the Living [al-Hayy], the Speaking [al-Natiq], the One who Remains after the Annihilation of Creation [al-Baqi ba‘d fana’ al-khaliq].

This is a copy [nushah] of the covenant [‘ahd] which was written by Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib for all the Christians [nasara].

Copy [nuskhah] of the Covenant [kitab al-‘ahd]

This covenant of Allah [‘ahd Allah] was ordered to be written by Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him and his family [alihi], to all the Christians and all the monks, to guard and protect them, because they are Allah’s trust among His Creations [wadi‘at Allah fi khalqihi] in order for the covenant to be a proof [hujjah] against them and there would be no claim against Allah after the Messenger. He made this a protection [dhimmah] from him and a protection for them by the authority of Allah, for Allah is All-Mighty [‘Aziz] and All-Wise [Hakim]. It was written by the Lion [asad] and the People of His Vocation [ahl al-millati] to all those who profess the Christian religion [da‘wat al-nasraniyyah] in the Eastern lands and its West, near and far, be they Arabs or non-Arabs [‘ajami], known or unknown, as a covenant [‘ahd] from him, a justice and tradition to be preserved.

He who observes it holds to his Islam and is worthy of his religion [din]. He who breaks it [nakatha] and jeopardizes the covenant [‘ahd] which was ordered by the Messenger of Allah, and changes it, and transgresses what has been commanded, has rejected the Covenant of Allah [‘ahd Allah], denies the Oath of Allah [mithaq Allah], disdains his religion, and merits His Maledictions, whether he is a Sultan or anyone else among the believers [mu’minin] and the Muslims.

I started by committing myself to the covenant, granted alliances [uhud] and pledges [mawathiq] to those who requested them from me and from all of my Muslim Community [millati min al-muslimin]. I gave them the Covenant of Allah [ahd Allah] and His Pledge [mithaq] and I placed them under the safeguard of His Prophets, His Chosen Ones [asfiya], His Friends [awliyyah] from among all the Believers [mu’minin] and the Muslims over time. My protection [dhimmati] and my security [mithaqi] represent the most solid covenant that Allah, the Most Exalted, has given a prophet sent in truth to demand obedience, to give obligations [farida], and to respect the covenant [‘ahd].

The covenant of Allah [‘ahd Allah] is that I should protect their land [‘ard], their monasteries [al-diyar], with my power [qudrah], my horses, my men, my weapons [silahi], my strength [quwwati], and my Muslim followers [atba] in any region, far away or close by, and that I should protect their businesses. I grant security to them, their churches, their businesses, their houses of worship [buyut salawatihim], the places of their monks, the places of their pilgrims, wherever they may be found, be they in the mountains or the valleys, caves or inhabited regions, the plains or the desert and that I should protect their dhimmah, their faith [millah], and their religion [din], wherever they may be found in the East or West, in the sea or on land, the same way that I protect myself, my entourage [khasati], and the People of my Community [ahl al-millati] among the Muslims.

I place them under my protection [dhimmah], my security [mithaq], and my trust [aman] at every moment. I defend them from any damage, harm [makruh] or retribution [tabi‘a]. I am behind them, protecting them from every enemy or anyone who wishes them harm [muhdi]. I sacrifice myself for them by means of my helpers [a‘wani], my followers [atbai], and the People of my Community [ahl al-millah] because they are my flock [ra‘iyyah] and the people under my protection [ahl al-dhimmati], I extend [amudu] my authority [sulta], my care [ri‘ayyah], and my protection over them from every harm [makruh] so that it does not reach them. No harm will reach them unless it reaches my Companions [ashab] who [are there to] protect them and assist Islam [nusrat].

I remove from them the harm from taxes and loan in the supplies borne to the People of the Pact [ahl al-ahd] except what they themselves consent to give. They should not be compelled or unfairly treated in this matter.

It is not permitted to remove a bishop from his bishopric, a monk from his monastic life, a Christian from his Christianity, an ascetic [zahid] from his tower, or a pilgrim from his pilgrimage. Nor is it permitted to destroy any part of their churches or their businesses or to take parts of their buildings to construct mosques or the homes of believing Muslims [mu’minin al-muslimin]. Whoever does such a thing will have violated the covenant of Allah [‘ahd Allah], disobeyed [khalafa] his Messenger, and deviated [hadha] from His Divine Alliance.

It is not permitted to impose a capitation [jizyah] or any kind of land tribute [kharaj] on monks, bishops or those who are worshippers among them, who, by devotion, wear woolen clothing [al-suf] or live alone in the mountains or in other regions secluded from human presence.

The capitation [jizyah] will be applied to those Christians who are not clerics [man la yattabad] with the exception of the monk and the pilgrim in the amount of four dirhams per year or an inexpensive cloak [tawb]. He who does not have the money or the food with which to feed himself, the Muslims will help him by means of the savings stored in the Treasury [bayt al-mal]. If they find difficulties in securing food, the Muslims will also help them, provided they willingly accept.

May the land tribute [jizyah al-kharaj] on big business by land or sea, pearl-diving, mining for precious stones, gold and silver, or those who are wealthy among those who profess the Christian faith, not exceed twelve dirhams [fiddah] per year, so long as they are inhabitants and residents in these countries.

May nothing similar be demanded of travelers, who are not residents of the country or wayfarers whose country of residence is unknown. There shall be no land tax with capitation for others than those who own land as will the other occupants of lands over which the ruler has a right. They will pay taxes as others pay them without, however, the charges unjustly exceeding the measure of their means. As for the labor force which the owners spend upon to cultivate these lands, to render them fertile, and to harvest them, they are not to be taxed excessively. Let them pay in the same fashion and justly that which was imposed on other similar tributaries.

The people under our protection [ahl al-dhimmah] will not be obliged to go to war with the Muslims in order to combat their enemies and to attack them. Indeed, the people under our protection [ahl al-dhimmah] are not to engage in war. It is precisely to discharge them of this obligation that this pact has been granted to them as well as to assure them the help and protection of the Muslims. They will not be constrained to provide equipment to any of the Muslims, in arms or horses, in the event of a war in which the Muslims attack their enemies, unless they contribute to the cause freely. And what the Muslims have borrowed will be guaranteed by the [State] Treasury [bayt al-mal] until it is returned to them. If they die or are damaged, the [State] Treasury [bayt al-mal] will provide monetary compensation.

No one who practices the Christian religion will be forced to enter into Islam. And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better [29:46]. They must be covered by the wing of mercy and all harm that could reach them, wherever they may find themselves and wherever they may be, must be repelled.

If a Christian were to commit a crime or an offense, Muslims must provide him with help, defense, and protection, as well as pay his penalty for him. They should encourage reconciliation between him and the victim, to help or save him.

The Muslims must not abandon him or leave him without help and assistance because I have given them a covenant of Allah which is binding upon the Muslims.

In virtue of this pact, they have obtained inviolable rights to enjoy our protection, to be protected from any infringement of their rights, and they are not to be disputed, rejected, or ignored so that they will be bound to the Muslims both in good and bad fortune.

The girls of the Christians must not be subject to suffer, by abuse, on the subject of marriages which they do not desire. Muslims should not take Christian girls in marriage against the will of their parents nor should they oppress their families in the event that they refused their offers of engagement and marriage. Such marriages should not take place without their desire and agreement and without their approval and consent.

If a Muslim takes a Christian woman as a wife, he must respect her Christian beliefs. He will give her freedom to listen to her [clerical] superiors as she desires and to follow the path of her own religion. Whoever, despite this order, forces his [Christian] wife to act contrary to her religion, he will have broken the alliance of Allah and broken the promise [mithaq] of His Messenger and he will be counted, by us, among the liars [kadhibin].

If the Christians approach you seeking the help and assistance of the Muslims in order to repair their churches and their convents, or to arrange matters pertaining to their affairs and religion, these [Muslims] must help and support them. However, they must not do so with the aim of receiving any reward or debt. On the contrary, they should do so to restore that religion, out of faithfulness to the pact of the Messenger of Allah, by pure donation, and as a meritorious act before Allah and His Messenger.

In matters of war between them and their enemies, the Muslims will not employ any Christian as a messenger, scout, guide, to show power, or for any other duty of war. Whoever obliges one of them to do such a thing will be unjust [zaliman] towards Allah, disobedient [‘asiyan] to His Messenger, and will be cast out [mutakhaliyan] from his religion. Nothing is permitted to a Muslim [with regards to the Christians] outside of obeying these edicts which Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah, the Messenger of Allah, has passed in favor of the religion of the Christians.

I am also placing conditions [upon the Christians] and I demand that they promise to fulfill and satisfy them as commands their religion. Among other things, none of them may act as a scout, spy, either overtly or covertly, on behalf of an enemy of war, against a Muslim. None of them will shelter the enemies of the Muslims in their homes from which they could await the moment to launch an attack. May these enemies [of the Muslims] never be allowed to halt in their regions, be it in their villages, their oratories, or in any other place belonging to their co-religionists. They must not provide any support to the war enemies of the Muslims by furnishing them with weapons, horses, men or call for unnecessary things. They must not annoy them and they should be honored as long as they persist in their religion and their care for their pact. They must grant Muslims three days and three nights when they halt among them. They must offer them, wherever they are found, and wherever they are going, the same food with which they live themselves, without, however, being obliged to endure other annoying or onerous burdens.

If a Muslim needs to hide in one of their homes or oratories, they must grant him hospitality, give him help, and provide him with their food during the entire time he will be among them, making every effort to keep him concealed and to prevent the enemy from finding him, while providing to all of his needs.

Whoever contravenes or alters the ordinances of this edict will be cast out of the alliance between Allah and His Messenger.

May everyone abide by the treaties and alliances which have been contracted with the monks, and which I have contracted myself, wherever they may be.

The Messenger of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, must respect what he has granted, on his authority and all the Muslims, to guard them and have mercy on them until the end, until the Hour of [Resurrection] arrives, and the world comes to an end.

Whoever is unjust after this towards a [Christian] subject [dhimmi], breaks the covenant and rejects it, I will be his enemy on the Day of Judgment among all the Muslims.

As witness to this covenant [kitab]–which was written by Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah, the Messenger of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to all the Christians [jami‘] to whom he put conditions in it, and for whom he wrote the following covenant [‘ahd]–there are thirty witnesses:

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

Abu Dharr

Abu al-Darda

Abu Hurayrah

‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud

al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Malik

Fadl ibn al-‘Abbas al-Zahri

Talhah ibn ‘Abd Allah

Sa‘id ibn Mu‘azz

Sa‘id ibn Ubadah

Thabit ibn Qays

Yazid ibn Talit

‘Abd Allah ibn Yazid

Farsus ibn Qasim ibn Badr ibn Ibrahim

Amir ibn Yazid [Imam ibn Yazid?]

Sahl ibn Tamim

‘Abd al-‘Azim ibn al-Najashi

———————-

[different handwriting]

‘Abd al-‘Azim ibn Husayn

‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As

‘Amr ibn Yasir

Mu‘azim ibn Musa

Hassan ibn Thabit

Abu Hanifah

‘Ubayd ibn Mansur

Hashim ibn ‘Abd Allah

Abu al-‘Azar

Hisham ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, wrote this covenant, and the manuscript [sijl] was written on a piece of leather [jild] that was not small. It remained at the Sultan’s authority and was sealed by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. All praise be to Allah.

This blessed book [kitab al-mubarak] was completed on the holy day of Monday, in the last month of Ba‘una, the blessed, in the year of our Masters the Martyrs, the Pure Ones, the Felicitous, the Satisfied [abrar], may Allah grant us their intercession and may their intercession be with us. Amen!

This corresponds to the 27th of the sacred [haram] month of Muharram of the year 945 of the Arabic hijrah. May Allah make its end good! Amen!

This blessed book [kitab al-mubarak] belongs to the great soul [al-mubajjal], the master [al-mawla], the leader [al-ra’is], the elder [al-shaykh], the scholar [al-‘alim], Sum‘an, the son of [najl], the source of greatness [al-mu‘azzam] Fadl Allah, may Allah rest his soul in peace [nayaha allah nafsahu], known as [al-ma‘ruf] al-Barallusi.

The writer of these words is the humble [miskin], full of faults and sins [khataya wa al-dunub], asking the brothers who read these words [lit. letters] to mention them in their prayers [salawat] and the Messiah [masih] will reward them one hundred and sixty three times.

 

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of Persia

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of Persia

(Certified as authentic by Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq)

[By the Prophet Muhammad]

[Cited in Arpee, 1946: 355-360]

By the will of God! In the name of God Merciful!

Be this Writ known to all in the handwriting, and the style, a Compact firm, a Treaty that must be obeyed by all Christian nations, such as dwell throughout the world toward the eastward of Arabia and Persia, or within the bounds of them, whether they be in immediate contact with the Faithful or whether they be distant, and whether or not they have acquaintanceship with the Faithful. This Covenant and Compact is worthy of obedience, and it behooves all Moslems also to observe its provisions. Whosoever shall esteem it his bounden duty to obey the words of this Covenant, his faith is perfect after the manner of men who do well, as such a one [who] shall be esteemed worthy of a reward; but those who shall willfully pervert the words of this Covenant, annul it or do despite to it, or shall disobey the commands of this Compact, persisting in their contrary way, such shall be deemed nullifiers of the Covenant or Compact of God. Whosoever also shall irreverently despise this Writ, the same shall be held worthy of punishment, whether he be a king, or one of the people, whether he be a pious believer (sc., a Moslem), or only a believer (sc., a Christian).

Now: to begin the words of this Compact, in accordance with the prompting of God vouchsafed to me in authentication. With a firm bond do I bind this Compact, the like of which no prophets of the past ever have bound, and as no angels standing before God have found it easy to command. The words, therefore, of this Covenant, which I am about to lay down, must be obeyed by all who are my people.

All pious believers shall deem it their bounden duty to defend believers and to aid them wheresoever they may be, whether far or near, and throughout Christendom shall protect the places where they conduct worship, and those where their monks and priests dwell. Everywhere, in mountains, on the plains, in towns and in waste places, in deserts, and wheresoever they may be, that people shall be protected, both in their faith and in their property, both in the West and in the East, both on sea and land.

And even as they honor and respect Me, so shall Moslems care for that people as being under our protection, and whensoever any distress or discomfort shall overtake them, Moslems shall hold themselves in duty bound to aid and care for them, for they are a people subject to my Nation, obedient to their word, whose helpers also they are.

It therefore is proper for my sake to attend to their comfort, protection and aid, in face of all opposition and distress, suppressing everything that becomes a means to their spoliation. In the levying of taxes, it is necessary not to exact more than they are able to pay, but to adjust matters with their consent, without force or violence. Their building enterprises shall not be interfered with; their priests shall not be molested in the performance of their task; they shall not be persecuted for their faith or their customs, but shall be allowed to pray as they will in their own places of worship and according to their own rites; neither shall their churches be dismantled or destroyed, or their homes and mansions confiscated by Moslems, for mosques or residences, without their consent. Whosoever shall not do as is here prescribed, but shall do contrary to my behests; the same shall be held a despiser of this Compact, and a gainsayer of the word of God and of his Prophet.

No land taxes shall be exacted from them in excess of the value of four dinars, or one linen sheet, which shall be applied for the benefit of the Moslems and held as a sacred trust for public use. Nothing more also shall be exacted from them (scil., by way of a poll-tax) than what we here prescribe. Whether they be merchants and wealthy, or whether they live in the open country, whether they fish for pearls in the sea, or own mines of precious stones, or of gold, or of silver, or possess other rich estates, they shall not be made to pay more than twelve dirhams.

Of those who are not of the Christian faith [and] neither conduct worship according to the Christian rite, four dirhams shall be exacted. But of those who conform to that people and are obedient to their word, not more shall be demanded than the aforementioned Twelve Dirhams, provided that they dwell where all their people are resident. Those who travel, and being without a place of permanent abode are constantly on the move, shall not be subject to land taxes, except that in the event any of them shall fall heirs to property on which the Imam has a legal claim, the lawful tax shall be exacted, yet even so the taxpayer shall not be made the victim of violence or of unlawful exactions in excess of his ability to pay. His mansions, his produce, and his fruits shall not be made to objects of avarice.

Christians shall not be asked to fight for Moslems against the enemies of the Faith, neither shall Moslems at war with foreign nations or engaged in massacre constrain Christians to make common cause with them against the enemy. But if the enemy shall attack the Christians, then the Moslems shall not spare the use against him or their horses, their swords and their spears. In so doing they will perform a pleasant deed.

No Christians shall be brought by force to confess Islam, and no disputes except over the better things shall be envisaged in with them. Moslems shall extend over the Christians everywhere the arm of mercy and kindness, protecting them from the exactions of oppressors. If any Christian shall be found inadvertently offending, Moslems shall deem it their duty to assist him, accompanying him to the law-courts, so that not more may be exacted of him than is prescribed by God, and peace may be restored between the parties to the dispute according to the Scripture.

All conditions previously named being observed, and the capitation tax being paid by them, no Christians shall be tyrannized over or oppressed by my people. Neither shall they on their part tyrannize over Moslems or oppress them, from this time forth even until such time as God shall ordain. Moslems shall not take the women and maidens of the Christians by force, but only with the consent of their lords, except in the event that they by free choice shall desire to be united to Moslems and married to them whether permanently or only for a time, when this shall be permitted to them out of respect to the freewill of women who should be at liberty to marry whom they love and choose. And if any Christian women shall marry a Moslem, it shall be permitted to her to continue in the Christian faith, attending the churches of the Christians without let or hindrance, and she shall live at her pleasure according to her own faith and laws. No obstacle shall be placed in the way of her communicating with her own spiritual advisers; neither shall she, forcibly and against her will, be made to forsake her own faith and laws. Whosoever shall do despite the words of this Contract, the same shall be accounted as having done despite God, and shall be held guilty in the Prophet’s sight of annulling the words of the Covenant of the Prophet of God. Such a one shall be numbered among sinners before God.

Christians must attend to all repairs on their own churches, chapels and monasteries. If in the interest of the benevolent Moslem public, and of their faith, Moslems shall ask of the Christians for assistance, the latter shall not deny them what help, as an expression of friendship and goodwill, they are able to render. Seeing that the Christians have submitted to us, implored our protection and taken refuge with us, we deem all help and succor rendered to them every way legitimate. If any one of them shall be sent as an envoy to negotiate peace between Moslems and Infidels, no one shall prevent his going, and if he should prove of service to our cause, let the service be accepted; but whosoever shall despise him, the same shall be numbered among the wicked, guilty before the Prophet of God, and an enemy of his revealed word.

[Here also follows a Treaty of Mohammed, the Great Prophet of God (may the blessings of God rest upon him and his posterity!), with the Christian people, a Treaty which His Majesty after the foregoing words commanded and established with the Christians relative to their faith and laws, embracing a few commandments by which Christians shall regard themselves as being bound. Let them do nothing contrary to the previous words, and everything in harmony with those following.]

One of the commandments is this; that they shall give no aid to infidels, whether openly or surreptitiously, neither receive into their houses enemies of Moslems lest at a convenient opportunity they attack them. They shall not permit enemy men to stop at their houses or churches, neither shall they harbor enemy troops, or aid them with spear, arrow, sword or horse, or with aught else.

They shall not act as guides to them, or show them how to ambush the enemy. They shall not commit to them their possessions for safe-keeping; they shall not communicate with them, or aid them by word or deed, or afford them shelter except only under duress.

If a Moslem shall chance at a Christian’s house, he may there be entertained three days and three nights; more than that is unnecessary. Christians shall avert from Moslems the abuse and oppressions of tyrants.

In the event that it becomes necessary for them to hide a Moslem in their own mansions or houses, they shall give him a place to lie, and take care of him, neither forsaking him, nor leaving him without food, so long as he shall be in hiding. Women and children of Moslems shall not be betrayed or shown to the enemy, neither shall Christians deviate from these orders.

And if any Christian shall do contrary to this Treaty, or ignore it, he shall be accounted as annulling the same. Such a one is loathsome to God, and the Prophet shall visit upon him his just retribution.

Wherefore let all Christians deem it both binding and proper to observe the words of this Treaty even until such time as God shall ordain.

In witness whereof is attached the Signature that in the presence of the Clergy and the Lords of the Nation, the Holy, Great Prophet, Mohammed, affixed, confirming the foregoing Treaty.

God Omnipotent and Lord of All!

In pursuance of the Command of the Great Prophet of God, Mohammed, the Lord’s Chosen (may the blessing of God rest upon him and upon his posterity!), this Treaty was drawn up on the Monday following the first four months of the Fourth Year of the Hegira.

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of Najran

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of Najran 

 [By the Prophet Muhammad]

[Translated by John Andrew Morrow in 2013]

[Exordium]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.

A covenant of protection granted by Allah and His Messenger to the People of the Book, the Christians, who belong to the religion of Najran or any other Christian sect.

It has been written by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to all of humanity, as a guarantee of protection on the part of Allah and His Messenger, and made it binding upon the Muslims who will come after him, which they have to be aware of, recognize as authentic, believe in it, and preserve it in their favor.

It is forbidden for any man, whether he is a governor or holder of authority, to revoke it or infringe upon it.

The Believers must not charge them with other conditions than those which are included in this document.

He who preserves it, respects it, and abides by its dictates, will have fulfilled his obligations and will have adhered by the covenant of the Messenger of Allah.

He, however, who breaks it, opposes it or changes it, will carry his crime on his head for he will have betrayed the Covenant of Allah, broken his faith, resisted His Authority and contravened the will of His Messenger: he will thus be an imposter in the eyes of Allah. For protection is obligatory in Allah’s religion and the covenant confirmed. He who does not abide by this covenant will have violated his sacred obligations, and he who violates his sacred obligations is unfaithful and will be rejected by Allah and by all sincere Believers.

The reason for which the Christians have been found worthy of this covenant of protection from Allah, His Messenger, and the Believers, is because it is a right they have earned, to which every Muslim is bound, to obtain this covenant established in their favor by the men of this Religion, and which obliges every Muslim to respect it, to defend it, to conserve it, to protect it perpetually, and to live up to it.

Verily, the people who followed the ancient religions and the ancient Books expressed hostility towards Allah and His Messenger and loathed them by denying the mission of the Prophet which Allah, the Most High, has clearly proclaimed in His Book. This demonstrates the crookedness of their breasts, the wickedness of their intentions, and the hardness of their hearts. They themselves prepared the burden of the crime they bore while hiding the one which Allah wanted to impose upon them, by proclaiming it instead of hiding it and by testifying instead of denying it.

These people acted in opposition to the obligation that was imposed upon them, did not observe it as they should have, did not follow the clearly marked paths, and agreed only to show their hostility towards Allah and His Messenger, to attack them, and to persuade people by means of imposture and false arguments, that Allah could not have sent him to humanity to proclaim, to preach, and to call to Allah by His Permission, to be a shinning lamp, and to promise Paradise to those who obeyed him and portend fire for those who disobeyed him.

They exceeded the bounds of opposition by inciting others to do what they themselves would never have dared to do: to deny his revelation, to reject his mission, and to seek, through cunning, to make him succumb to pitfalls.

They targeted the Prophet of Allah and decided to kill him. They reinforced the Party of the Polytheists of the Tribe of Quraysh as well as others in order to fight him, to dispute his doctrine, to force it back, and to contradict it.

For this reason, they deserved to be deprived of the Alliance of Allah and His Protection. Their behavior during the days of Hunayn, the battles against the Bani Qaynuqah, the tribe of Qurayzah and Nadir, is well-known. Their leaders lent support to the inhabitants of Mecca, the enemies of Allah, against the Messenger of Allah, and supported them, by means of troops and weapons, against the Prophet, out of hatred for the Believers.

The Christians, on the contrary, refused to wage war against Allah and His Messenger. Allah, as well, has declared that their tenderness towards the followers of this faith and their affection for Muslims were sincere.

Among other words of praise which Allah has bestowed upon them in His Book and His Revelations, after having been convinced of the hardness of heart of the Jews, He recognizes their inclination and affection towards the Believers: Certainly you will find, He says, the most violent of people in enmity for those who believe (to be) the Jews and those who are polytheists, and you will certainly find the nearest in friendship to those who believe (to be) those who say: ‘We are Christians;’ this is because there are priests and monks among them and because they do not behave proudly. And when they hear what has been revealed to the messenger you will see their eyes overflowing with tears on account of the truth that they recognize; they say: ‘Our Lord! We believe, so write us down with the witnesses (of truth). And why should we not believe in God and what has come down to us of the truth? And we hope to be admitted by our Lord among those who are upright and do good?” [5:82-83]

In fact, some Christians, who were worthy of trust and who knew the divine religion, helped us to proclaim this religion and came to the help of Allah and His Messenger, by preaching to men according to His Will and to help him accomplish his mission.

The Sayyid ‘Absiso, Ibn Hijrah, Ibrahim the monk, and ‘Isa the Bishop, came to see me, accompanied by forty horsemen from Najran along with others who, like them, profess the Christian religion in the lands of Arabia as well as foreign lands. I informed them of my mission and asked them to help reinforce it, to proclaim it, and to assist it.

And since the cause of Allah appeared evident to them, they did not turn back on their steps nor did they turn their backs. On the contrary, they drew close, remained firm, consented, assisted, confirmed, made generous promises, gave good advice, and assured me by means of oaths and covenants that they would support the truth which I brought and that they would repel those who refused and contradicted it.

After they rejoined their co-religionists, they did not break their covenant nor did they change their opinion. On the contrary, they observed what they had promised to me when they left me and I learned, to my great pleasure, that they proved their devotion, united to wage war against the Jews, and that they came to an understanding with the People of the Vocation, to publicize the cause of Allah, to support it, and to defend its apostles, and that they had debunked the evidence which the Jews had relied upon in order to deny and hinder my mission and my word.  The Christians sought to prop up my action and waged war against those who hated my doctrine and who wanted to rebut it, alter it, repudiate it, change it, and overturn it.

All of the Arab chiefs, all of the leading Muslims, and all the People of the Vocation, from around the world sent me letters expressing the fondness of Christians towards my cause, their zeal to push back the incursions made along the fortified borderlines of their region, their determination to observe the treaty which they contracted with me when they met with me and which I granted them. For, truly, the bishops and the monks showed an unshakable loyalty in their attachment to my cause and the devotion of their persons to confirm and support the spread of my mission.

I want my mission to be spread. I ask them to join together in support of this goal against those who would deny and reject aspects of my doctrine, who would want to destroy and ruin it, by blaming them and abasing them.

They acted according to my instructions and abased them. They worked so hard to bring them to confess to the truth with submission, to respond to the call of Allah, by will or by force, allowing them to be drawn (into Islam) as conquered people. The Christians acted this way in observance of the treaties contracted between them and me, in order that they fail not to fulfill the obligations to which they had committed themselves during their meeting with me and through a spirit of zeal to support my cause and to make my mission known.

They were different in their faithful devotion from the Jews, the Qurayshites, and the other polytheists. They demonstrated no desire for worldly gain for which the Jews seek and yearn by practicing usury, looking for money, and selling the law of God for a miserable price. Woe to those who work for such a gain. Woe to those for what they write, and woe to them for what they gain by such means.

As such, the Jews and the polytheists of Quraysh along with others deserved to be treated as the enemies of Allah and His Messenger due to their treacherous plans, their enmity, the plots they devised (against me), and the fierce, intermittent war they waged in support of my enemies. Thus did they become the enemies of Allah, His Messenger, and the good Believers.

The Christians, however, behaved in the very opposite way. They respected my alliance. They recognized my rights. They fulfilled the promises that they had made during our meeting. They assisted the lieutenants that I had sent to the frontiers. They earned my concern and my affection by fulfilling the obligations that I had contracted with them spontaneously in the name of all of the Muslims spread from East to West, my protection during my life and after my passing, when Allah will make me die. So long as Islam will spread and my true mission and faith will grow, this covenant will be obligatory for all Believers and Muslims, so long as water fills the ocean floor, rain falls from the sky, the earth produces plants, the stars shine in the firmament, and the dawn appears to the traveler nor will it be permitted for anyone to break this treaty, alter it, add to it, delete from it, for such additions infringe upon my covenant and suppressions weaken my protection.

This covenant, which I wish to accord myself, binds me. Anyone from my ummah who, after me, breaks this Covenant of Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, the Proof of Allah will be raised against him, and Allah is sufficient as a Witness.

What drives me to act this way is that three people (from Seyyid Ghassani) asked me for a document that would act as a safe-conduit, a treaty which recognized their fidelity to their promises towards the Muslims and to the treaty which I voluntarily concluded with them.

I wanted that the details of the alliance be ratified in the eyes of whoever follows in my path in all Arab regions, and that I and those of my vocation be bound to abstain from responsibility over those who called themselves Christians and who follow any of the different Christian sects and that this treaty be inviolable, solemn, and obligatory for all Muslims and Believers.

I therefore called the leaders of the Muslims and my main Companions and having stood surety to the demand of the Christians, I prepared this document, which Muslims, whether or not they detain power, are obliged to preserve from generation to generation, to carry out my orders in order to abide by the obligation of loyalty and respect towards those who requested this covenant of me, and to be faithful to the obligations which I have contracted, so that they not be reproached for having disobeyed my order.

The people, as well, must abstain from harming them, and abide by the covenant that I have made with them so that they can enter along with me by the gates of faithfulness, and contribute to the good that I have done to those who have earned it for having supported my mission and enraged the deniers and the skeptics.

In order that there be no proof on the part of those who are the object of this covenant against the partisans of Islam, if these were to act against the content of this document, failing to recognize the rights that they have earned from me and which they deserved to obtain.

Finally, this covenant reminds [Believers] to be benevolent; encourages good will; commands charity; deters evil; and is the path of sincerity and the way which leads to justice, Allah willing.

[The Covenant of the Prophet with the Christians of Najran]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.

This document has been provided by Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, the Messenger of Allah to all of humanity, who was sent to preach and to warn, who has been entrusted the Trust of Allah among His Creatures so that human beings would have no pretext before Allah, after his messengers and manifestation, before this Powerful and Wise Being.

To Sayyid Ibn Harith ibn Ka‘b, his co-religionists, and all those who profess the Christian religion, be they in East or West, in close regions or faraway regions, be they Arabs or foreigners, known or unknown.

This document which has been prepared constitutes an authoritative contract, an authentic certificate established on the basis of convention and justice, as well as an inviolable pact.

Whoever abides by this edict, shows his attachment to Islam, will be worthy of the best that Islam has to offer. On the contrary, any man who destroys it, breaks the pact which it contains, alters it, disobeys my commandments, will have violated the pact of Allah, transgresses his alliance, and disdained his treaty. He will merit his malediction, whether he is a sovereign authority or someone else.

I commit myself to an alliance and a pledge with them on behalf of Allah and I place them under the safeguard of His Prophets, His Elect, His Saints, the Muslims and the Believers, the first of them and the last of them. Such is my alliance and pact with them.

I proclaim, once again, the obligations that Allah imposed on the Children of Israel to obey Him, to follow His Law, and to respect His Divine Alliance. I hereby declare that my horsemen, my foot-soldiers, my armies, my resources, and my Muslim partisans will protect the Christians as far away as they may be located, whether they inhabit the lands which border my empire, in any region, close or far, in times of peace as much as in times of war.

I commit myself to support them, to place their persons under my protection, as well as their churches, chapels, oratories, the monasteries of their monks, the residences of their anchorites, wherever they are found, be they in the mountains or the valleys, caves or inhabited regions, in the plains or in the desert.

I will protect their religion and their Church wherever they are found, be it on earth or at sea, in the West or in the East, with utmost vigilance on my part, the People of my House, and the Muslims as a whole.

I place them under my protection. I make a pact with them. I commit myself to protect them from any harm or damage; to exempt them for any requisitions or any onerous obligations and to protect them myself, by means of my assistants, my followers and my nation against every enemy who targets me and them.

Having authority over them, I must govern them, protecting them from all damage and ensuring that nothing happens to them that does not happen to me and my Companions who, along with me, defend the cause of Islam.

I forbid any conquerors of the faith to rule over them during their invasions or to oblige them to pay taxes unless they themselves willingly consent. Never should any Christian be subjected to tyranny or oppression in this matter.

It is not permitted to remove a bishop from his bishopric, a monk from his monastic life, or anchorite from his vocation as a hermit. Nor is it permitted to destroy any part of their churches, to take parts of their buildings to construct mosques or the homes of Muslims. Whoever does such a thing will have violated the pact of Allah, disobeyed his Messenger, and become estranged from the Divine Alliance.

It is not permitted to impose a capitation or any kind of tax on monks or bishops nor on any of those who, by devotion, wear woolen clothing or live alone in the mountains or in other regions devoid of human habitation.

Let there be a limit set of four dirhams per year that all other Christians who are not clerics, monks, or hermits need to pay. Otherwise, let them provide one outfit of stripped material or one embroidered turban from Yemen. This is to help Muslims and to contribute to the growth of the Public Treasury. Were cloth difficult for them, they should provide its equivalent price, if they themselves willingly consent.

May the capitation of the Christians who have income, who own land, who engage in an important amount of commerce by land or by sea, who exploit mines for precious stones, gold and silver, who are wealthy, not surpass, as a whole, twelve dirhams per year, so long as they are inhabitants of these countries and are residents there.

May nothing similar be demanded of travelers, who are not residents of the country or wayfarers whose country of residence is unknown.

There shall be no land tax with capitation for others than those who own land as with the other occupants of inherited properties over which the ruler has a right. They will pay taxes as other pay them without, however, the charges unjustly exceeding the measure of their means. As for the labor force which the owners spend upon to cultivate these lands, to render them fertile, and to harvest them, they are not to be taxed excessively. Let them pay in the same fashion that was imposed on other similar tributaries.

The men who belong to our alliance will not be obliged to go to war with the Muslims in order to combat their enemies, to attack them, and to seize them.  Indeed, the members of the alliance will not engage in war. It is precisely to discharge them of this obligation that this pact has been granted to them as well as to assure them the help and protection on the part of the Muslims. No Christian is to be constrained to provide equipment to a single Muslims, in money, in arm or in horses, in the event of a war in which the Believers attack their enemies, unless they contribute to the cause freely. Whoever does so, and contributes spontaneously, will be the object of praise, reward, and gratitude, and his help will not be forgotten.

No Christian will be made Muslim by force: And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better [29:46]. They must be covered by the wing of mercy. Repel every harm that could reach them wherever they may find themselves and in any country in which they are.

If a Christian were to commit a crime or an offense, Muslims must provide him with help, defense, and protection. They should pardon his offense and encourage his victim to reconcile with him, urging him to pardon him or to receive compensation in return.

The Muslims must not abandon the Christians, neglect them, and leave them without help and assistance since I have made this pact with them on behalf of Allah to ensure that whatever good befell Muslims it would befall them as well and that whatever harm befell Muslims would befall them as well. In virtue of this pact, they have obtained inviolable rights to enjoy our protection, to be protected from any infringement of their rights, so that they will be bound to the Muslims both in good and bad fortune.

Christians must not be subjected to suffer, by abuse, on the subject of marriages which they do not desire. Muslims should not take Christian girls in marriage against the will of their parents nor should they oppress their families in the event that they refused their offers of engagement and marriage. Such marriages should not take place without their desire and agreement and without their approval and consent.

If a Muslim takes a Christian woman as a wife, he must respect her Christian beliefs. He will give her freedom to listen to her [clerical] superiors as she desires and to follow the path of her own religion. Whoever, despite this order, forces his wife to act contrary to her religion in any aspect whatsoever he will have broken the alliance of Allah and will enter into open rebellion against the pact of His Messenger and Allah will count him among the impostors.

If the Christians approach you seeking the help and assistance of the Muslims in order to repair their churches and their convents or to arrange matters pertaining to their affairs and religion, these must help and support them. However, they must not do so with the aim of receiving any reward. On the contrary, they should do so to restore that religion, out of faithfulness to the pact of the Messenger of Allah, by pure donation, and as a meritorious act before Allah and His Messenger.

In matters of war between them and their enemies, the Muslims will not employ any Christian as a messenger, scout, guide or spy or for any other duty of war. Whoever obliges one of them to do such a thing will harm the rights of Allah, will be a rebel against His Messenger, and will cast himself out of His Alliance. Nothing is permitted to a Muslim [with regard to the Christians] outside of obeying these edicts which Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah, the Messenger of Allah, has passed in favor of the religion of the Christians.

He is also placing conditions [upon the Christians] and I demand that they promise to fulfill and satisfy them as commands their religion, among which, among other things, none of them may act as a scout, spy, either overtly or covertly, on behalf of an enemy of war, against a Muslim. None of them will shelter the enemies of the Muslims in their homes from which they could await the moment to launch an attack. May these enemies [of the Muslims] never be allowed to halt in their regions, be it in their villages, their oratories, or in any other place belonging to their co-religionists. They must not provide any support to the enemies of war of the Muslims by furnishing them with weapons, horses, men, or anything else, nor must they treat them well. They must host for three days and three nights any Muslims who halt among them, with their animals. They must offer them, wherever they are found, and wherever they are going, the same food with which they live themselves without, however, being obliged to endure other annoying or onerous burdens.

If a Muslim needs to hide in one of their homes or oratories, they must grant him hospitality, guide him help, and provide him with their food during the entire time he will be among them, making every effort to keep him concealed and to prevent the enemy from finding him, while providing for all of his needs.

Whoever contravenes or alters the ordinances of this edict will be cast out of the alliance between Allah and His Messenger.

May everyone abide by the treaties and alliances which have been contracted with the monks, and which I have contracted myself, and every other commitment that each prophet has made with his nation, to assure them safeguard and faithful protection, and to serve them as a guarantee.

This must not be violated or altered until the hour of the Resurrection, Allah-willing.

This document, by Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah which contains the covenant he concluded with the Christians and which includes the conditions imposed upon these latter, has been witnessed by:

‘Atiq ibn Abi Quhafa

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

Abu Dharr

Abu al-Darda

Abu Hurayrah

‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud

al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib

al-Fadl ibn al-‘Abbas

al-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwam

Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd Allah

Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh

Sa‘d ibn ‘Ubadah

Thumama ibn Qays

Zayd ibn Thabit and his son ‘Abd Allah

Hurqus ibn Zuhayr

Zayd ibn Arqam

Usamah ibn Zayd

‘Umar ibn Mazh’un ‘Ammar

Mus’ah ibn al-Zubayr ibn Jubayr

Abu al-Ghalia

‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As

Abu Hudhayfa

Ka‘b ibn Malik

Hasan ibn Thabit

Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib

[Written by Mu‘awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan]

© John Andrew Morrow, 2013. All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is a violation of applicable laws.

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Assyrian Christians

The Covenant of the Prophet Muhammad with the Assyrian Christians 

[By the Prophet Muhammad]

[Translation Cited by Malech in 1910: 228-230]

God has told me in a vision what to do, and I confirm His Command by giving my solemn promise to keep this agreement.

To the followers of the Islam I say: Carry out my command, protect and help the Nazarene nation in this country of ours in their own land.

Leave their places of worship in peace; help and assist their chief and their priests when in need of help, be it in the mountains, in the desert, on the sea, or at home.

Leave all their possessions alone, be it houses or other property, do not destroy anything of their belongings, the followers of Islam shall not harm or molest any of this nation, because the Nazarenes are my subjects, pay tribute to me, and will help the Moslems.

No tribute, but what is agreed upon, shall be collected from them, their church buildings shall be left as they are, they shall not be altered, their priests shall be permitted to teach and worship in their own way–the Christians have full liberty of worship in their churches and homes.

None of their churches shall be torn down, or altered into a mosque, except by the consent and free will of the Nazarenes. If anyone disobeys this command, the anger of Allah and His Prophet shall be upon him.
The tribute paid the Nazarenes shall be used to promote the teachings of Islam and shall be deposited at the treasury of bayt al-mal. A common man shall pay one dinar, but the merchants and people who own mines of gold and silver and are rich shall pay twelve dinars. Strangers and people who have no houses or other settled property shall not have taxes levied upon them. If a man inherits property he shall pay a settled sum to the bayt al-mal treasury.

The Christians are not obliged to make war on the enemies of Islam, but if an enemy attacks the Christians, the Mohammedans shall not deny their help, but give them horses and weapons, if they need them, and protect them from evils from outside and keep the peace with them. The Christians are not obliged to turn Moslems, until God’s will makes them believers.

The Mohammedans shall not force Christian women to accept Islam, but if they themselves wish to embrace it, the Mohammedans shall be kind to them.

If a Christian woman is married to a Mohammedan and does not want to embrace Islam, she has liberty to worship at her own church according to her own religious belief, and her husband must not treat her unkindly on account of her religion.

If anyone disobeys this command, he disobeys God and his prophet and will be guilty of a great offense.

If the Nazarenes wish to build a church, their Mohammedan neighbors shall help them. This shall be done, because the Christians have obeyed us and have come to us and pleaded for peace and mercy.

If there be among the Christians a great and learned man the Mohammedans shall honor him and not be envious of his greatness.

If anyone is unjust and unkind to the Christians he will be guilty of disobeying the Prophet of God.

The Christians should not shelter an enemy of Islam or give him horse, weapon or any other help.

If a Mohammedan is in need the Christian shall for three days and nights be his host and shelter him from his enemies.

The Christians shall, furthermore, protect the Mohammedan women and children and not deliver them up to the enemy or expose them to view.

If the Nazarenes fail to fulfill these conditions, they have forfeited their right to protection, and the agreement is null and void.
This document shall be entrusted to the Christian chief and head of their church for safe keeping.

Signatures:

Abubakr Zadik, Omar Ben Chetab, Moavijah Ibn Abi Sofian, Abu Darda, Abuzar, Abubra, Abdula, Ibn Masud, Abdula Ibn Abas, Hamza Ibn Almulabb, Fazl Ibn Abas, Zaibar Ibn Aqam, Tilha Ibn Abdullah, Saad Ben Maaz, Saad Ibn Ebadah, Sabeh Ibn Kebis, Jazid Ibn Sabib, Abdullah Ben Jazid, Suhail Ibn Mifah, Othman Ibn Mazum, David Ibn Gijah, Abu Alalijah, Abdullah Ibn Omar Alqazi, Abu Harifah, Ibn Azir, Ibn Rabiah, Ebar Ibn Jaamir, Hashim Ibn Azijah, Hasan Ibn Zabid, Kab Ibn Kab, Ibn Malech, Jafar Ibn Abu Talib.

[Abu Bakr Siddiq, ‘Umar ben Khattab, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, peace be upon him, Mu‘awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan, Abu Darda, Abu Dharr, Abu Barah, ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas, Hamzah ibn al-Muttalib, Fadl ibn ‘Abbas, Zubayr ‘Awwam, Talhah ibn ‘Abd Allah, Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh, Sa‘d ibn ‘Ubadah, Thabit ibn Qays, Yazid ibn Thabit, ‘Abd Allah ibn Yazid, Sahl ibn Sufya [or Sifa], ‘Uthman ibn Mat‘un, Dawud ibn Jibah, Abu al-‘Aliyyah, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-Qadi, Abu Hudayfah, Ibn ‘Asir, Bin Rabi‘ah, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, Hashim ibn ‘Asiyyah, Hassan ibn Thabit, Ka‘b ibn Ka‘b, Ka‘b ibn Malik, Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib]

The peace of God be upon them all!

This agreement is written down by Moavijah Ben Sofian, according to the dictates of Mohammed, the messenger of God, in the 4th year of the Hegira in the city of Medina.